Brief HISTORY OF MELAKAThe Malacca Sultanate (Malay: Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centered in the modern day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks circa 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a renegade Malay Raja of Singapura, Iskandar Shah, who was also known in certain accounts as "Parameswara". At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most importantentrepots of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula, Riau Islands and a significant portion of the east coast of Sumatra.
The series of raids launched by the Chola Empire in the 11th century had weakened the once glorious Malay empire ofSrivijaya. By the end of the 13th century, the already fragmented Srivijaya caught the attention of the expansionist Javanese King, Kertanegara of Singhasari. In 1275, he decreed the Pamalayu expedition to overrun Sumatra. By 1288, Singhasari naval expeditionary forces successfully sacked Jambi and Palembang and brought Srivijaya to its knees. The complete destruction of Srivijaya caused the diaspora of the Srivijayan princes and nobles. Rebellions against the Javanese rule ensued and attempts were made by the fleeing Malay princes to revive the empire, which left the area of southern Sumatra in chaos and desolation. According to the Malay Annals, a fleeing prince from Palembang named Sang Nila Utama who claimed to be of mixed Malay-Indo-Persian descent, took refuge in the island of Bintan for several years before he set sail and landed on Temasek in 1299. The Orang Laut (Sea People), famous for their loyal services to Srivijaya, eventually made him Raja of a new kingdom called Singapura. In the 14th century, Singapura developed concurrently with the Pax Mongolica era and rose from a small trading outpost into a center of international trade with strong ties with the Yuan Dynasty. Its wealth and success however, alarmed two regional powers at that time,Ayuthaya from the north and Majapahit from the south. As a result, the kingdom's fortified capital was attacked by at least two major foreign invasions before it was finally sacked by Majapahit in 1398. The fifth and last king, Iskandar Shah fled to the west coast of Malay Peninsula.